【Rice Agri-food education】A Brief History of Rice Farming in Taiwan: Japanese Occupation Period
日治時期Japanese Occupation Period
Since the era of Japanese occupation, the government has been actively involved in the management of rice production. In order to promote modern farming techniques and encourage rice production to farmers, the Japanese government, in conjunction with the research of scholars, promotes rice cultivation with illustrations and posters, and organizes competitions and public awards.
The Japanese government supervises the quality of rice, controls the price of rice, and also creates social competitiveness by reducing the price of food. However, the income of farmers is often at the bottom, and they even use cheaper rice mixed with sweet potato sticks as their staple food, and they cannot afford to grow their own Penglai rice.
工業日本、農業台灣Industrial Japan, Agricultural Taiwan
During the Meiji Restoration (1860-1880), Japan transformed from an agricultural country to an industrial country. During the process of industrialization, a large number of the original agricultural population moved to the cities to become laborers, and the rural areas faced population loss and reduced productivity, resulting in an increasingly serious food shortage in Japan. .
In 1895, the Qing Dynasty was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, and the Qing and Japan signed the “Treaty of Shimonoseki”, and China handed over the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan. In order to cooperate with Japan’s industrial development, “Industrial Japan, Agricultural Taiwan” became the economic policy of Japan to colonize Taiwan.
In the context of this era, the Taiwan Governor’s Office has promoted many agricultural constructions and policies, including setting up various crop test sites in various places, building large-scale water conservancy projects, researching crop varieties, and improving planting techniques, the most important of which are sucrose and rice.
在磯永吉博士的努力下，台灣也成功栽培出合乎日本人口味的「稉米」，並在 1926 年命名為「蓬萊米」。此後，蓬萊米在台灣的種植面積迅速擴張，台灣稻米產量大增，其中大部分運往日本。而因為種植蓬萊米的收益提高，甘蔗種植面積大受影響，讓原本日治初期以蔗糖為主的經濟體系，在 1930年代演變成「米糖相剋」的局勢。
In the early days of Japanese occupation, the Japanese government vigorously encouraged Japanese capitalists to develop the sugar industry in Taiwan, produce sucrose in Taiwan, and then send the sucrose back to Japan, where demand is high. Also because Japan has a food shortage problem, it also attaches great importance to Taiwan’s rice production potential.
With the efforts of Dr. Isonagaji, people has also successfully cultivated “japonica rice” that suits the Japanese taste in Taiwan, and in 1926 it was named “Penglai Rice”. Since then, the planting area of Penglai rice in Taiwan has expanded rapidly, and Taiwan’s rice production has increased significantly, most of which are shipped to Japan. Due to the increase in the income of planting Penglai rice, the sugarcane planting area was greatly affected, so that the original economic system that was dominated by cane sugar in the early days of the Japanese occupation evolved into a situation of “rice and sugar competing” in the 1930s.
At that time, the cultivation of rice and sugarcane competed with each other for farmland. The sugar company implemented the “Rice Price Ratio Standard Law” in an attempt to suppress the cultivation of rice. However, because Japan still needed Taiwan to provide rice, the Taiwan Governor’s Office encouraged farmers to switch to rice, which eventually led to Taiwan Its agriculture has shifted from focusing on sucrose and rice to diversification.
Extended reading: Wikipedia – Rice Sugar Xiangke
蓬萊米之父-磯永吉博士The father of Penglai Rice – Dr. Iso Eikichi
Extended reading: Wikipedia – Dr. Iso Eikichi
If you want to understand the history of rice development in Taiwan, you must know Dr. Iso Eikichi (1886-1972). Dr. Iso Eikichi was born in Fukuyama City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. He came to Taiwan in 1912 and worked at the Taiwan Governor’s Office Agricultural Experiment Field. He later also served as the director of the Taiwan Governor’s Office Agricultural Experiment Institute, a professor at Taipei Imperial University, and the director of the Taichung Agricultural Experiment Field. .
Dr. Iso Eikichi has been in Taiwan for 45 years and has published many important works on rice breeding and crop cultivation improvement. In 1928, he published “Research on the Breeding of Rice in Taiwan”, which earned him a doctorate in agriculture from Hokkaido Imperial University. In 1926, a Japanese-type rice seed was successfully cultivated in Taiwan and was named “Penglai Rice”. Dr. Iso Eikichi was called the “Father of Penglai Rice” because of his great contribution.
After the end of the Second World War (1939-1945), due to Dr. Iso Eikichi’s outstanding contribution to Taiwan’s agriculture, the Taiwan Provincial Government hired him as a consultant to assist in the technical improvement of domestic grain production. Dr. Iso Eikichi also became one of the very few Japanese who were allowed to stay in Taiwan at that time.
【米雙語食農教育】系列文章 Rice Agri-food education: Series of Articles
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【Rice Agri-food education】A Brief History of Rice Farming in Taiwan 1: Neolithic Age, Hezhi Period, and Requesting Period
【Rice Agri-food education】A Brief History of Rice Farming in Taiwan 2: Japanese Occupation Period
【Rice Agri-food education】A Brief History of Rice Farming in Taiwan 3: Kuomintangs Retreat, WTO, Recent Years
【Rice Agri-food education】Status of Rice Planting in Taiwan, Nantou and Rice Planting in Puli
【Rice Agri-food education】 Rice Planting Process: Breeding, Ploughing, Transplanting, Management, Field Drying, Harvesting
【Rice Agri-food education】 Why there is less continuous cropping obstacle in rice: Poaceae and paddy field characteristics
【Rice Agri-Food Education】Land and Climatic Environment Suitable for Rice, Planting Environment in Puli
【Rice Agri-Food Education】Rices life & The Two Stage of Rice Harvesting in Taiwan
【Rice Agri-Food Education】8 Important Functions of Paddy Fields: Environmental Protection and Cultural Heritage
【Rice Agri-Food Education】4 types of rice & factors that determine the taste of rice
【Rice Agri-Food Education】9 Popular, Must-Try Rice Varieties In Taiwan