【米雙語食農教育】適合水稻的土地和氣候環境、埔里種植環境


【Rice Agri-Food Education】Land and Climatic Environment Suitable for Rice, Planting Environment in Puli

適合水稻的氣候環境 Climate Suitable for Rice

適合稻作的土地和氣候有 3 個條件:

  1. 水源充足:稻作的生長需要大量的水源,所以如果附近有河川,或是能獲得山上融雪水源的地區,都是適合栽種水稻的地方。而且山上融雪富含礦物質,是很肥沃的養分。
  2. 遼闊平坦的平原:現代農夫普遍使用機器耕種,所以為了提升效率,種植在平坦又遼闊的土地是最棒的。
  3. 晝夜溫差大:白天水稻在太陽底下行光合作用,製造澱粉;而晚上水稻會利用一部分的澱粉幫助自身成長,如果夜晚的氣溫夠低,水稻就不用消耗多餘的澱粉,所以只要日夜溫差夠大,水稻就能夠充分儲存澱粉,長成美味又飽滿的米粒。

There are 3 conditions for the land and climate suitable for rice cultivation:

  1. Sufficient water sources: The growth of rice crops requires a large amount of water sources, so if there are rivers nearby, or areas with access to snowmelt water from the mountains, it is a suitable place to grow rice. And the melting snow on the mountain is rich in minerals, which are very fertile nutrients.
  2. Vast and flat plains: Modern farmers generally use machines to farm, so to improve efficiency, planting on flat and vast land is the best.
  3. Large temperature difference between day and night: During the day, rice photosynthesizes under the sun to make starch; and at night, rice uses part of the starch to help itself grow. If the temperature at night is low enough, rice does not need to consume excess starch. As long as the temperature difference between day and night is large enough, rice can fully store starch and grow into delicious and plump rice grains.

南投的埔里是適合種植水稻的地方,埔里本身是盆地,被周圍高山包圍,並且有南港溪、眉溪等主要河川的灌溉。雖然現在種稻的人少,但埔里水稻產量在南投開發史上,曾經名列前茅,僅次於草屯鎮與南投市呢。

Puli is a suitable place for rice cultivation. Puli itself is a basin, surrounded by surrounding mountains, and is irrigated by major rivers such as Nangang River and Mei River. Although there are few people planting rice now, Puli’s rice production was once among the best in the history of Nantou development, second only to Caotun Town and Nantou City.

適合水稻的土壤Soil Suitable for Rice

種植水稻的時候,土壤扮演很重要的角色,而水稻適合的土壤,也有 3 個要素喔!

  1. 富含養分:最重要的當然是要富含水稻需要的養分啦,一般我們知道所謂肥料三要素是氮、磷、鉀,而對稻米來說,還有一個重要元素-矽,矽可以讓葉片強壯,防止病原菌和害蟲入侵。
  2. 良好排水、空氣流通:在排水好、空氣流通的土壤下,水稻的根容易生長,也比較容易吸收水分和養分。因此如果是排水太好的沙地,就要混入一些較黏的土壤,以提高保水力。
  3. 適量有機質:有機物是含有由生物形成的碳元素的物質,存在落葉、動植物排泄物中,有機物在土壤中會被微生物分解成氮、鉀等養分,所以土壤的環境也必須適合好的微生物生存。

When planting rice, soil plays a very important role, and suitable soil for rice also has 3 elements!

  1. Rich in nutrients: Of course, the most important thing is to be rich in nutrients that rice needs. Generally, we know that the three elements of fertilizer are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For rice, there is another important element – silicon, which can Make leaves strong and prevent the invasion of pathogens and pests.
  2. Good drainage and air circulation: In the soil with good drainage and air circulation, the roots of rice are easy to grow, and it is easier to absorb water and nutrients. Therefore, if it is a sandy land with good drainage, it is necessary to mix in some sticky soil to improve water retention.
  3. Appropriate amount of organic matter: Organic matter is a substance containing carbon formed by organisms. It exists in fallen leaves, animal and plant excrement, and organic matter will be decomposed into nitrogen, potassium and other nutrients by microorganisms in the soil, so the soil environment must also be suitable for good microorganisms to survive.

並不是所有的土壤都能滿足上面的條件,所以假如土壤中缺乏某種養分,就要施肥來補充。而堆肥中有豐富的有機物,所以許多農夫也把堆肥當作很重要的工作。

Not all soils can meet the above conditions, so if the soil lacks a certain nutrient, it is necessary to fertilize it. Compost is rich in organic matter, so many farmers also regard composting as a very important job.

埔里土壤與氣候 Puli Soil and Climate

作物要種植的好,水質和土壤都非常重要,埔里有來自合歡山的泉水,水質佳已經不是秘密,而根據我們拜訪供銷部農會余大哥所述,埔里水質土質俱佳,幾乎什麼作物都能種,也因此埔里農地價值很高,如果想租地,目前的行情是一年一分地 10,000元,而稻農一年一甲地的收入也才平均 50,000元。因此如果有一甲地,把地租出去,一年還能賺 100,000元呢!

埔里多雲霧與水氣的盆地地形,以及均溫26度的氣候,都是茭白筍的最佳生長環境。在早期,埔里稻農原本種植水稻與甘蔗輪作,而茭白筍經濟價值高,後來農民紛紛改種茭白筍。目前埔里的水田幾乎都是茭白筍田,總栽種面積高達 1,800 公頃,茭白筍的產量占全台總產量的 85%。

To grow crops well, both water quality and soil are very important. Puli has spring water from Hehuan Mountain. It is no secret that the water quality is good. According to our visit to Mr. Yu of the Farmers’ Association of the Supply and Marketing Department, Puli’s water quality and soil quality are excellent, and almost all crops can be grown. The farmland in Puli is very valuable because of that. If you want to rent land, the current market price is $10,000 TWD for 9,699 m2 a year, and the average annual income of a rice farmer is only $50,000 TWD for 9,699 m2 a year. Therefore, if you own a 9,699 m2 land, you can earn twice more money by renting it out!

Puli’s cloudy and misty basin topography, as well as the climate with an average temperature of 26 degrees, are the best growing environment for water bamboo. In the early days, rice farmers in Puli originally planted rice and sugarcane in rotation, while water bamboo had high economic value. Later, farmers switched to growing water bamboo. At present, almost all paddy fields in Puli are water bamboo farms, with a total planting area of 1,800 hectares. The production of water bamboo accounts for 85% of the total output of Taiwan.

【米雙語食農教育】系列文章 Rice Agri-Food Education: Series Of Articles

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